An immature domain in which no closed approach to a solution is known or feasible.


No feasible deterministic solution for data transformation into high-level data structures. The domain has uncertain or approximate knowledge. The transformations can result into many alternatives.


  • A complete search of the solution space is not feasible in a reasonable time

  • Immature Domain

  • Different algorithms that solve partial problems

  • Input, as well as intermediate and final results, have different representations

  • An algorithm usually works on the results of other algorithms

  • Uncertain data and approximate solutions are involved

  • Employing disjoint algorithms induces potential parallelism


  • Experimentation

  • Support for changeability and maintainability

  • Reusable knowledge sources

  • Support for fault tolerance and robustness


  • Difficulty of testing

  • No good solution is guaranteed

  • Difficulty of estabilishing a good control strategy

  • Low Efficiency

  • High devlopment effort

  • No support for parallelism